The clinical type and etiological agents of superficial dermatophytosis: A cross sectional study


Original Article

Author Details : Shivam , Shitij Goel, Sushmita Agrahari*, Gopi Krishna Maddali

Volume : 7, Issue : 4, Year : 2021

Article Page : 331-336

https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijced.2021.062



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Abstract

Introduction: Dermatophytosis are fungal infections caused by three genera of fungi that have the unique ability to invade and multiply within keratinized tissue (hair, skin, and nails). Although dermatomycoses are globally distributed, the endemic and most prevalent species of dermatophytosis differ strikingly from one geographic locality to another. Changing trend has been noticed in last few years with dermatophytic infections presenting as chronic, treatment unresponsive and recurrent. Also various microscopic and fungal culture studies have shown shift in identification of causative fungal species in recent years. Numerous studies have been done on the occurrence of dermatophytes in various parts of our country illustrating the range and changing pattern of fungal infection as well as causative fungal species.
Materials and Methods: Total number of 150 patients attending outpatient department of our hospital who were clinically diagnosed as having superficial dermatophytosis were enrolled into the study. Patients were carefully screened as per inclusion and exclusion criteria and then enrolled in the study. Samples were taken from all the patients and examined for KOH direct microscopy and sent for fungal culture on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar as well as on Dermtophyte Test Medium. Results were then analyzed using standard statistical methods.
Results: Out of total 150 patients, 101 were males and 49 were females. Most common age group was 21-30 years (37.3%). 58 patients (38.7%) showed positivity to KOH microscopy as well as fungal culture. Additionally 25 more samples demonstrated positivity to KOH microscopy (total 83 patients) but negativity to culture, while 9 patient samples were positive to culture but negative to direct microscopy. Predominant fungal species isolated on culture was Trichophyton mentagrophytes (50.7%) while next common species isolated was T. tonsurans (29.9%). No significant association was found between dermatophyte isolate on culture and clinical type. Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton tonsurans were the most common species isolated among subjects with Tinea faciei, Tinea cruris and Tinea corporis.
Conclusion: The study showed a male preponderance and T. corporis was the commonest clinical type found. Majority of patients were in the 3rd decade and came within a duration of 1 month to 6 months of getting an infection. In patients diagnosed with tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis and tinea manuum, T. mentagrophytes was the most predominant species isolated.
 

Keywords: Dermatophytic infections presenting with change in trend of etiological agent and becoming treatment unresponsive and recurrent.


How to cite : Shivam, Goel S, Agrahari S, Maddali G K, The clinical type and etiological agents of superficial dermatophytosis: A cross sectional study. IP Indian J Clin Exp Dermatol 2021;7(4):331-336


Copyright © 2021 by author(s) and IP Indian J Clin Exp Dermatol. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (creativecommons.org)





Article History

Received : 16-08-2021

Accepted : 09-10-2021

Available online : 11-12-2021


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https://doi.org/10.18231/j.ijced.2021.062


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